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2022-08-22 11:01:14


有些谓语动词必须和主语在人称和数上保持一致,特别是动词为现在时态时。在一般现在时中,若主语为第三人称单数,多数动词都要加-s或-es,如:He comes.Mary cries。如果主语不是第三人称单数,就不需加这样的词尾,如:I come.

They cry.而且,不管是作主要动词还是助动词,在第三人称单数的主语后都得用is,has,does这种形式,否则用are,am,have或do。至于can,may,must这些助动词,在各种人称后形式不变:

He(or She,It,My friend)comes(or sees,goes).

He(or She,It,My friend)is waiting,has come,does go,(is,has,does作助动词) is kind,has a funny face,doesnothing at all.(is,has,does作主要动词)

I(or we,You,They,My friends)come(or see,go).

I am waiting,have come,do go.We(or You,They,Myfriends)are waiting,have come,do go.(am,are,have,do作助动词)

I am sorry.They are kind,have funny faces,do nothingat all.(am,are,have,do作主要动词)

任何主语+must(or can,may,ought to,need not,darenot)come(or see,go).


He was ill.I was ill.They were ill.


They(or John and Mary) will come,shall come.

He(or It) will come,shall come.



The students,as well as the teacher,are(or is?)in the class-room.(在决定用are还是is以前,首先得决定students和teacher哪是主语,还是两者都是主语。)

My guide is(or are?) the stars.(是guide还是stars是真正的主语?)


Billiards(单数还是复数?) is(or are?)my favorite game.

The phenomena(单数还是复数?) is(or are?) unbelievable.

The headquarters(单数还是复数?) is(or are?)in London.



Who are they?

Which does she like best?

Has your wife come back from Paris?

Are the guests celebrating her birthday?


If you are not satisfied,nor is Peter.

Never in my life have I forgot her.Nobody else can I love.

Hardly has Liz woken up when the sun rises.

“I feel bored.”“So is evrybody.”


There come many children.

Before the house stands a tree.

Before the house stand a tree and a bench(two things).

In the house there is a cat,(there is)a dog,and(thereare)three birds.(后面的there is,there are多省略,在acat前用is是对的。)

To Dick fall the duties of maintaining the family.

After Jan comes Nora.

Here's all the coins I have.(在口语中here's和there's和where's后可跟一复数名词)

There's three friends waiting for me.

Where's the kids that stole the apples?


Gone are all my happy days!

Waiting for the results are thousands of people.Gathered under the roof were all the big shots.


John and Mary(=Two persons)are coming.

(但:John is coming and Mary is coming,too.)

My money and my friend are both gone.

Good coffee and bad are different from each other.


He and I (=We)are friends.

Both you and he(=Both of you)are ill.


Every boy and every girl is playing.

Any relative,any friend and any neighbour is ready to helphim.

Each grown-up and each child likes it.

No city,no village,no mountain,(and) no sea is a place ofsafety.

Many a man and many a woman has seen the accident.


A general and a statesman(two persons)were killed.

His home and his office are very far from my home.

A black and a white dog are playing in the yard.


English and French grammar are different.

Sweet and sour pork is delicious.


The situation before the war and the situation after are differ-ent.

What he said and what he thought were the same.


A general and statesman(one person)was killed.

His home and office(one place)is very far from my house.

A black and white dog(one dog) is playing.

What he said and thought was for others.


Bread and butter is enough for me.

Whisky and soda is his favourite.

Duck and peas is delicious,but eggs and bacon is better.

That cup and saucer is broken.

The wheel and axle is out of repair.

A needle and thread is all my grandmother needs.

Romeo and Juliet is a tragedy.


The use and object of this are(or is)simple.

The stitching and binding of books are(or is)a hard job.

His courage and endurance are(or is)Great.

Sym pathy and understanding are(or is)required.

Trial and error(通常看作一个概念)is the best way tolearn.

All work and no play makes Jack a dull boy.

The ebb and flow of one's fortune is a matter of course.


Mary,and her parents too(or also,likewise,as well),isfond of John.(=Mary is fond of John,and her parents arefond of John,too.)

Mary,and perhaps(or particularly,even,certainly)herparents,is fond of John.(and+副词+名词)

Mary,but not her parents,is fond of John.

Mary's parents,but not Mary herself,are fond of John.(在跟有not时,可以用but代替and。)


Thirteen is an unlucky number.

Two and two make(or makes)four.

Eight plus five equals thirteen.(书面体)

Three fives are(or is)fifteen.(口语体)

Three times five are(or is)fifteen.

What are(or is)twice seven?

40 multiplied by 58 equals 2320.(书面体)

Five from nine(or Nine take away five)is(or leaves)four.(口语体)

Six hundred and one minus forty equals five hundred and six-ty-one.(书面体)

Three into twelve goes four.(口语体)

Two hundred fifty divided by fifty equals five.(书面体)如果数词表示复数的人或东西,动词也用复数形式:

Five(=Five Persons)were killed.

One and a half…为复数,而half a…为单数:

One and a half dollars were spent on sugar,and half a dollarwas Spent on flour.

A fine and/or imprisonment is(or are)not enough.

如果两个主语由or或nor连接,动词与最靠近的主语一致:Either you or I am right.

Neither Alice nor her parents like Mike.

One or two words are enough.(但是A word or two is e-nough.)

There is one or two examples.

Wang or rather his brothers decide the matter.

但:Life or(=and)death are nothing to me.

Whether John or Mary are willing to help me is still a problem.

两个主语若由not only…but also…连接起来,动词和最近的主语一致:

Not only my house,but many other houses have been white-washed.

(但最好说:Not only my house has been whitewashed,butmany other houses,too.)

Not only Mary's parents,but also Mary herself likes Mike.

There is not only Mary,but also Mary's parents.


Two girls,besides(介词)Mary,are studying Malay.

All my sisters,except Lilian,study flower-arranging.

The street,with so many people going up and down,is dirty.

Lee,together with(介词短语)his three brothers,has cometo our party.

The horses,along with their owner,fall into the river.

This problem,in addition to the other two,make me sad.

You,as well as(连词短语)he,are mistaken.

The students,much more than the teacher,wish for a holi-day.

The teacher,as much as the students,wishes for a holiday.

Wang's friends,no less than Wang himself,wish for his suc-cess.

One apple,divided(分词短语)by six children,is a thingunpleasant.

The manager,accompanied by his assistants,has gone out.

My schoolmates,including John,are kind to me.

All the members,not excepting the chairman,are arrived.


Besides Mary,three students are studying Malay.

In addition to the other two,this problem makes me sad.

No less than Wang himself,Wang's friends wish for his suc-cess.

Accompanied by his assistants,the manager has gone out.

主语后面有时跟有of或其他介词时,动词仍和主语一致:One of the boys is sick.

The meeting of so many strangers broadens his view.

A cleanup of such a government is absolutely necessary.

The loss of his parents was too much for him.

A truckload of oranges costs about a thousand dollars.

Two spoons of sugar are just enough.

Two bottles of whisky are nothing to him.

Only five bags of rice are in stock.

Six cases of cholera are reported.

Signs of revolt are increasing every day.

This kind(or sort,type,class,species,breed,variety)ofcat is rare.

These kinds(or sorts,…)of flowers are rare.(口语体)

Flowers of this kind(or sort,…) are rare.(书面体)

One of the students,who speaks lrish,is her son.

One of the students who speak lrish is her son.

More children than one are infected.

Nobody but five workers is promoted.

Such people as John are wonderful.

The number of banks in this city is about forty.(但:A num-ber of banks are closed down.动词和这类数词短语后的名词一致)

The average of absentees is four in each meeting.(但:Anaverage of four persons are absent in each meeting.)

The total of murders in this year is over two hundred.(但:A total of two hundred murders are committed this year.)

后面跟复数动词的短语有:a majority of people,a variety ofreasons,a rain of bullets,a storm of stones,a flood of re-sources,a sea of faces,a trickle of tourists,a mountain ofwatermelons等等。

系动词一般都和前面的主语一致,而不受后面补语的影响:My only pleasure is the movies.

The movies are my only pleasure.

Those stars are my only guide.

My only guide is those stars.

His food is fruit and milk.

Fruit and milk are his food.

Dogs are a pleasant trouble.

We are a football team.


The movies,my only pleasure,are also my ruin.

Those stars,my only guide,are twinkling all the night.

His food,fruit and milk is delicious and nutritious.

They become master(or mistress)of the situation(or the Eng-lish language).

Many fall victim.

They seem to be our enemy.

They are always the victor.

The world appears too many for me.

The nation is but individuals.

Who is knocking?It seems to be John and Mary.

She is all eyes(or all tears,all smiles).

The room is all books and newspapers.

The street is all loiterers and beggars.

但:The following is my address(are their addresses).


He is(or becomes,makes)great friends with John.

He is pals(or shipmates,partners) with you.

He is enemies with everyone.

I am quits with him.


For them to tell lies is very easy.

For us businessmen to know many people is necessary.Telling lies does not pay.

Visiting all European countries is my ambition.

What we want is good roads.

That they like power and wealth is true.

“It pours cats and dogs”means it rains heavily.

“Many happy returns”is a form of greeting on someboby's birthday.


It is they who(代表it,而不代表 they)is(比 are好)wrong.

It is you that(代表 it,而不代表 you)often makes(比 make好) such mistakes.




Seven were killed.

Two are missing.

Few know it.

A few have been thrown away.

Several were wounded.

Hundreds have become homeless.

Both have come.

Thousands upon thousands were starved.

Some were killed,others were wounded.

A large variety of umbrellas are on sale.

A few are satisfied,but a great many are disappointed and very angry.

The majority(or generality)of human beings are selfish.

Fifty dozen of stockings have just arrived.

Ten pair(s)of gloves are on display.

Four yoke of oxen are coming.

Twenty head of cattle are grazing.

A number of articles are damaged.(但:The number of thir-teen is unlucky.)

One and a half(more than one) apples are entirely rotten.(但:One apple is rotten.)

No students are interested in this subject.(但:No student is interested in it.)

Many hours and days have been spent.(但:Many an hour and day has been wasted.)

More persons than one are suspected.(但:More than one per-son is suspected.

There is[or are]more than one person.)


So much has already been done.

A large amount of money has been spent on agriculture.

A large quantity of food was left rotten.

Little has been done.

A little is enough.

A high degree of development is in sight.

A great deal was lost.

Too much vegetables(即使用复数) spoils my appetite.

Not much clothes is on sale in this small town.

Too much old books has been crammed into my head.


There is enough(量词)water.

There are enough(数)rooms.

More water is required.

More trucks are required.

Some coffee has been ordered.

Some apples have been stolen.

NO milk was sold in this store.

No oranges were sweet in this season.

None of the money is wisely spent.

None of the houses are good to see.

Most of the milk was spilled out.

Most of the bananas were rotten.

A lot of money has been spent.

A lot of people have been invited.

Abundance of meat is consumed every day.

Abundance of watermelons are on sale.

Plenty of water is used in this city.

Plenty of pigs are killed every day.

Half of the liquor is alcohol.

Half of the inhabitants are workers.

Part of the money is spent on the movies.

Part of the books are damaged.

The rest of the cost was paid by him.

The rest of the children were still young.

Three fourths of the earth's surface is covered by water.

Three fourths of the residents are Chinese.

The bulk of his property has been sold.

The bulk of the inhabitants are Indians.

A mass of snow lies before my door.

A mass of people are gathering on the square.

A large percentage of profit has come to nothing.

A large percentage of crimes are due to alcohol.

A large proportion of his income is spent on liquor.

A large proportion of the residents are Arabs.


All the city is clean and very beautiful.但:All the cities are clean and beautiful.

Anything good is good to him.但:Any streets in this city are familiar to him.

Someone(or Somebody) has come.但:Some friends have come.

Such a person is never happy.但:Such persons are always dissatisfied.

A certain boy has broken it.但:Certain boys have done it.

Another girl loves him.但:Other girls love him.

Each wears a cap.但:They each wear caps.

Either(or Neither)(作形容词)party is right.

Either(or Neither)(作代词)of the two parties has its good leader.

Either(or Neither)(作代词) have their good leaders.(口语体)

Neither Jan,nor Helen,(nor) Belinda,nor Dorotby have come home.(口语体)


Who are(or is) waiting outside?

Which are(or is) yours?


What he is doing is trivial.

What made me sad was his unhappy marriage.


What children like are stories.

What seem to be boats are rocks.


What(= A thing that) seems to be a rat is something else.

What(= Things that) seem to be rats are some other ani-mals.

His family(作为整体)is large.


His family(= The members of his family) are all well.


Every family in this area is equipped with guns.

This club is devoted to the study of photography.

A committee is appointed to inquire into the matter.

The committee are at dinner.

The cavalry was repulsed.

The cavalry wear scarlet trousers.

This team is well organized.

Our(而不是 These)team are good players.

The company was organized by Mr.Johnson and they are mostly Americans.

The mob becomes more and more violent.

The mob were throwing up their caps and cheering.

This hotel is by the seaside.

All the hotel are startled at the alarm.

This class is a small one.

Our class are quarrelling among themselves.

The old couple(or pair)is happy.

The young couple(or pair) are quarrelling with each other.

但:This twin(one of the twins)is like the other.

These twins are like each other.

The litter of pups was born yesterday.(动物的集体)

The litter of pups were playing with each other.

Every herd of elephants in this area seems to be happy and free.

The flock of birds were flying about.

机关、团体、地方,例如 Bank of Japan,Labour Party,Hong Kong Sport Club,Ministry of Finance,the press,the city,the village,the neighbourhood等既可作单数也可作复数。在美国英语中,单数的集体名词通常看作单数。在英国英语中,人或动物的单数集体名词却既可看作单数,也可看作复数,但无生命东西的集合体的单数名词,如 cluster(of grapes),collec-tion(of books),bunch(of keys),pair(of shoes,scissors,glasses)只看作是单数。


The nobility have become poor.

This nobleman has become poor.

The peasantry(or tenantry,yeomanry)were underfed.

The peasant(or tenant)was underfed.

The gentry are rich.

This gentleman is rich.

The police are well-trained.

That policeman is well-trained.

Mankind are destroying their own civilization.

Man is destroying his own civilization.

Humanity is destroying its own civilization.

The human beings are destroying their own civilization.

The laity are not able to understand this term.

A layman is not able to understand this term.

The clergy are opposed to it.

A clergywman is among us.

The cavalry have fought bravely.

This cavalryman has done something great.

The infantry were defeated.

Every infantryman was healthy and strong.

The militia are to defend their town.

No militiaman knows about the infiltration of the enemy.

The youth are the future of a nation.

A youth is waiting at the bus stop for his girlfriend.

The British(or English,Irish,Scotch,Spanish,Dutch,French)are....

A Briton(or Englishman,Irishman,Scotsman,Spaniard,Dutchman,Frenchman)is....


A hundred clergy are meeting.

Twenty police(=Twenty policemen)are coming.

Twenty thousand infantry are setting out.

Many gentry are opposed to the measure.

Those folk(s)(or people)are hard-headed.

His sixteen offspring are all working with him.

All his kindred are living in London.

Three million population of this city are well-fed.

Four thousand cattle are to be exported.


The eaves are pretty.

Riches are not always dependable.

The odds are against us.(比较:What is the odds?——口语体)

Thanks are expressed.

Clothes are(Clothing is)not much needed here.

These goods are to be delivered.



The measles(or mumps,rickets,smallpox,shingles)is a disease very common in this village.



Every means(= method) has been used.All means(=methods) have been used.

An alms(or Much alms)was given to the poor.

These alms were given to the poor.

Great(or Much,Little)pains have(or has)been taken.

The tidings is(or are)bad.(比较:The news is—不能用are—bad.)

His wages are 3000 dollars a month.The wages of sin is death (old usage).A living wage is received only by a few work-ers.

An amends is necessary.These amends are satisfactory.

This species is rare.These species are valuable.

A series of battles was(or were)being fought.

Many series of battles have been fought.


The headquarters of the trade is in London.The headquarters of these various trades are in London.

A barracks is standing on the hill.Some barracks are the largest in this country.

A(general)stores is located at the corner.Several new(gen-eral)stores are being set up.

A glass-works is being built.These two glass-works are the best in this area.

A golf-links(= golf-course)is in the eastern part of the city.

Some golf-links are very far from here.

A crossroads is usually dangerous,but some crossroads are safe.

A gallows is being set up.Some gallows are left idle.

A shambles has replaced the prosperous city.Many shambles present themselves to our eyes.

Kensington Gardens is a nice place.There are not many botanical gardens in this country.

A lodgings is easy to find.Many lodgings are for rent.

“Is there a public baths here?”“There are many public baths.”

A kennels is where dogs are bred.Some kennels sell precious dogs.

His whereabouts is(or are) unknown.


The bellows(or scissors,pincers,tongs,forceps,shoes,pants,shorts,glasses,etc.)are lying in the corners.

A pair of bellows(or scissors,pincers,tongs,etc.) is lying idle.


Salmon(or Trout)(作为食品)is delicious.

These salmon(or trout) are caught in that river.

Fish(作为食品) is their only food.Three fishes are visible in the water.A lot of fish are caught.

Poultry(作为食品)is delicious.The poultry(作为活的动物)are drinking water.

The sheep is(or are)sleeping.

A deer is playing.Some deer are running.


His career has reached its climax.Their careers have been suc-cessful.(一个人有一番事业。许多人有许多番事业。)

His beard is impressive.Their beards are long.

The mane of this horse is thin.The manes of those horses are thick.

His offspring is healthy.Their offsprings are all soldiers.

The population of this city is thin.The populations of these two cities are similar.

The language of the U.S.A.is English.The languages of Britain and the U.S.A.are almost the same.

The alphabet of English is twenty-six letters.

The alphabets of English and French are a little different from each other.


Mathematics is an important subject in schoo1.

Economics is a study of production and consumption.

Dramatics is his subject.And accoustics,too.


My mathematics are poor.

The economics of this country are stable.

Such politics are foolish.Such tactics are ridiculous.

Gymnastics are popular today.

The ethics of some politicians are doubtful.

Statistics on this subject are incorrect.


Billiards(or Bowls,Dominos,Draughts)is my favourite game.

但:Cards are not interesting to me.


That Japanese(or Chinese,Portuguese,Vietnamese)is my friends.

Those Japanese(or Chinese,Portuguese,Vietnamese) are my friends.


This axis(or medium,radius,larva,analysis,criterion,Phenomenon,oasis,libretto,soprano)is…(单数形式)

Those axes(or media,radii,larvae,analyses,criteria,phenomena,oases,libretti,soprani)are...(复数形式)

The data is(or are)...


The honest(= The honest people)are always trustworthy.

The poor are to be relieved.

The blind are unfortunate.

The strong,the rich,the wicked are respected as the wise.

The oppressed are to rise one day.


The dead(or deceased,departed)was fifty years of age.

The bereaved is(or are)still young.

The condemned(or accused)is absent.

His intended(or betrothed)is young.


The beautiful(= Beauty)is the ideal of life.

The true looks less attractive than the false.

The familiar is always more desirable than the unknown.

The inside of the palace is more beautiful than the outside.(the inside=the inside part)

The white of an egg is full of protein.


Fifty dollars(= The sum of fifty dollars)is not a large sum.

Three yards(= The length of three yards)is not enough.

Six months(= The period of six months)is too short a time to learn anything.

Five kilograms(= The weight of five kilograms)is enough.这类带数词的名词前还可加一个指示词:

One short seven days is like seven years.

That three dollars(= That capital of three dollars)was the beginning of his career.

That second six months was happy indeed.

Every ten minutes is a trial.

A fortnight is not long enough to do the job.

This two kilograms of meat is enough for ten persons.

An estimated two thousand persons was killed in this hurri-cane.

A good ten miles is the distance we have climbed.

A happy three days has passed like a dream.

Such a weary six years was to me a terrible dream.

Ten apples(= Such a number of apples)is enough.

Two thousand immigrants is the quota for us this year.


Fifty dollars are too expensive.

Three yards cost thirty dollars.


Gulliver's Travels is my favourite book.

City lights is a famous movie.

Giants of the Earth is an opera.

The Canterbury Tales is(or are)very interesting.


The Philippines have seven thousand islands in the Pacific.The Himalayas are the roof of the world.

The Niagara Falls are the falls on the Niagara River.

The Great Lakes are a series of five lakes between the USA and Canada.

The Dardonelles are a strait 40 miles long and 1—4 miles wide.

The Pleiades are a cluster of stars in the constellation Taurus.

The Olympics are an international athletic competition held ev-ery four years.

其他复数专有名词还有:the Canaries,the Solomon Islands;the Alps,the Rockies,the Urals,the Pyrenees,the Andes;the Graces,the Fates;the Netherlands


The USA is a wealthy and strong country.

The United Nations is an international organization working for the peace of the world.